Cancer is still our second biggest killer. And it is largely preventable. We have it in our hands to prevent at least 50% of all cancers through our diet and lifestyle choices. And doing this could be a lot easier that you think.
In this guide I will show you the seven most powerful, alkaline, anti-cancer foods – PLUS – I’ll give you recipes and tips to get these foods into your daily life.
This is SO important:
If you are anything like me, cancer has affected the life of many people close to you…your family, loved ones, friends…
In 2016 around 550,000 people are expected to die due to cancer. That’s over 1,500 per day. It’s still the second leading cause of death only behind heart disease.
And like heart disease, most cancers are largely preventable by diet and lifestyle (sources: World Health Organization (33% preventable), Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (95% preventable), American Institute for Cancer Research (34%), Cancer Research UK (54% preventable).
This isn’t to point the finger or place any blame at all – absolutely not – there are always factors way outside of our control that can play a leading role.
And we are making progress. In Australia the number of deaths from cancer per 100,000 people has fallen by more than 16% in recent years.
But there is more we can do. We can do more to help ourselves and our loved ones. And even if there are factors outside of our control why not do everything we can – especially when we can make it delicious and easy to get these foods that can play such a big role.
This guide is intended to give you a head start. It’s not intended to be viewed as a prescription, cure or protocol.
It is a summary of the most researched, proven, powerful foods for preventing and fighting the most common cancers which account for over 85% of cases: breast, prostate, lung, kidney, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, thyroid, endometrial and pancreatic. (source: Cancer.Org)
Why Alkaline Foods? Is it all about the alkalinity?
It is undeniable that the most alkaline forming foods are incredibly powerful cancer-fighters (proven by research).
But it is also very important to note that the protective benefits of these foods and their strong cancer-fighting ability is not ONLY due to their alkalinity.
It’s so much more than that.
I believe that the benefit of these alkaline foods is made exponentially more powerful by the fact that these foods are all also naturally antioxidant-rich and anti-inflammatory.
It’s this 1-2-3 of alkalinity, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory that I believe makes the alkaline diet so darn powerful in the fight against cancer.
Otto Warburg & Cancer Research
In 1931, as I’m sure you’ve heard before, Dr. Otto Warburg was a Nobel Prize winner for his discovery that cancerous cells cannot exist in an alkaline environment, and that cancerous cells thrive in an environment where there is a lack of oxygen.
His research stated:
“All normal cells have an absolute requirement for oxygen, but cancer cells can live without oxygen – a rule without exception. Deprive a cell 35% of its oxygen for 48 hours and it may become cancerous.” – Biochemist Otto Heinrich Warburg
Dr. Warburg made it clear that the one of the root causes of cancer is oxygen deficiency, which creates an acidic state in the human body.
Dr Warburg also discovered that cancer cells are anaerobic (do not breathe oxygen) and cannot survive in the presence of high levels of oxygen, as found in an alkaline state and when antioxidants are abundant.
In recent years, numerous studies have concluded that having an acidic body can directly be responsible for thousands of serious diseases.
It is a straightforward conclusion to draw that eating alkaline-rich foods that are abundant in antioxidants will help prevent, and possibly reverse, cancer.
But what of inflammation?
For this we have to go back further to 1863 and Dr Rudolf Virchow who was the first to discover the link between inflammation and cancer (source: The Lancet).
We most commonly know this from Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC), but inflammation has been shown to be at the root of almost every type of cancer (Source: Science Blog, Cancer Research UK).
So while we call it an ‘alkaline diet’ – my approach furthers this to focus on these THREE key areas of alkalinity, anti-oxidants and anti-inflammation. And I believe this is an incredibly powerful combination.
Now…there are critics of the alkaline approach to health, and in 99% of cases these critics are misunderstanding the alkaline diet or missing the point. I explain everything here as to why the alkaline diet is NOT about changing your body’s pH.
And for the sake of peace – let’s pretend that I didn’t use the word ‘alkaline’ – regardless of whether you call them alkaline foods or not these foods are all researched and proven to help prevent and reverse multiple cancers and I have provided the research and evidence below.
The Seven Most Alkaline, Anti-Cancer Foods
Cancer-Fighter #1: Turmeric
There are now SO MANY studies linking turmeric to cancer prevention and treatment it’s hard to know where to start.
Simply put – if you son’t get motivated by anything else in this article…swear solemnly to consume turmeric daily for it’s cancer prevention qualities!
Here are just a handful of the studies:
Overwhelming in vitro evidence and completed clinical trials suggests that curcumin may prove to be useful for the chemoprevention of colon cancer in humans
Curcumin for chemoprevention of colon cancer; Cancer Letters Journal; Jeremy James Johnson, Hasan Mukhtarb; Volume 255, Issue 2, 8 October 2007, Pages 170–181 [link]
“These data demonstrate that curcumin inhibits the growth of H. pylori cagA+ strains in vitro, and this may be one of the mechanisms by which curcumin exerts its chemopreventative effects.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and curcumin inhibit the growth of Helicobacter pylori, a group 1 carcinogen; Journal of Anticancer Research; Mahady GB, Pendland SL, Yun G, Lu ZZ; [2002, 22(6C):4179-4181] [link]
Using an in vivo model of human breast cancer, dietary supplementation with curcumin was found to significantly inhibit cyclophosphamide-induced tumor regression.
Dietary Curcumin Inhibits Chemotherapy-induced Apoptosis in Models of Human Breast Cancer; The Journal of Cancer Research; Sivagurunathan Somasundaram, Natalie A. Edmund, Dominic T. Moore, George W. Small, Yue Y. Shi, and Robert Z. Orlowski; Cancer Res July 1, 2002 62; 3868 [link]
Curcumin could be a potentially therapeutic anti-cancer agent, as it significantly inhibits prostate cancer growth, as exemplified by LNCaP in vivo, and has the potential to prevent the progression of this cancer to its hormone refractory state.
Therapeutic potential of curcumin in human prostate cancer. III. Curcumin inhibits proliferation, induces apoptosis, and inhibits angiogenesis of LNCaP prostate cancer cells in vivo. Dorai T, Cao YC, Dorai B, et al. Prostate 2001 Jun 1;47(4):293-303. 2001. PMID:16280 [link]
Our findings suggest that curcumin has anti-metastatic potential by decreasing invasiveness of cancer cells. Moreover, this action was involved in the MEKK3, p-ERK signaling pathways resulting in inhibition of MMP-2 and -9 in human lung cancer A549 cells.
Overall, the above data shows that the anticancer effect of curcumin is also exist for the inhibition of migration and invasion in lung cancer cells.
Curcumin inhibits the migration and invasion of human A549 lung cancer cells through the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF); Cancer Letters Journal; Song-Shei Lin, Kuang-Chi Lai et al; Volume 285, Issue 2, 28 November 2009, Pages 127–133; [link]
How and why is turmeric so powerful in fighting cancers?
There are so many ways that the curcumin in turmeric helps fight and prevent cancer.
Here are just a handful, to give you the gist!
- Curcumin has an ability to induce apoptosis (natural cell death) in cancer cells.
- Curcumin’s antioxidant actions enable it to protect the cells from free radicals that can damage cellular DNA
- Curcumin also helps the body to destroy mutated cancer cells, so they cannot spread through the body and cause more harm
- It has also been shown to inhibit vascular epithelial growth factors. Every tumour needs a blood supply – the growth factors build one, but curcumin seems to stop them.
- It has been shown to re-awaken a key tumour suppressor gene.
In fact, it’s so highly regarded as being a powerful cancer-fighter, very expensive trials with nano-technology are being funded to find ways to delivery curcumin from turmeric more specifically and more powerfully in medical cancer treatments.
Turmeric is also easy to sneak in each day (in water, teas, sauces, juices, smoothies, soups etc) – so they come top of my list in terms of: ease of use x strength of cancer-fighting = awesome.
- Alkaline Recipe #170: Turmeric & Lentil Anti-Inflammatory Soup
- Alkaline Recipe #166: The Anti-Inflammatory Smoothie
- Two Powerful Anti-Inflammatory Turmeric & Ginger Teas (Free Alkaline Recipes #172 & #173!)
TIPS — How to Get Turmeric Every Day:
- Slice with a vegetable peeler into warm (lemon) water each morning
- Chop a chunk (or a pinch of powdered) into your smoothies
- Grate with a cheese grater into salads
Cancer-Fighter #2: Kale, Spinach, Leafy Greens
The ’Most Powerhouse Fruits & Vegetables’ research from 2014 uncovered the 41 top foods based on their antioxidant and vitamin/mineral content – and leafy green foods made up the entire 15 (alkaline foods accounted for 38 of the 41, just sayin’).
Leafy green vegetables such as kale, spinach, watercress, bok choi, cabbage, chard and so on are PACKED with anti-cancer nutrients.
Most leafy greens contain the antioxidants lutein and zeaxanthin. These carotenoids destroy and eliminate free radicals and unstable molecules from your body.
Kale has been especially well researched as it’s nutrient density covers the most important three areas: (1) antioxidant nutrients, (2) anti-inflammatory nutrients, alkaline nutrients.
And in the form of glucosinolates it possesses one of the most powerful anti-cancer nutrients yet identified by research. Once kale is eaten and digested, these glucosinolates can be converted by the body into cancer preventive compounds.
The unusually high combination of carotenoids and flavonoids in leafy greens also put these foods high at the top of the anti-cancer list.
- Alkaline Recipe #168: The Reflux-Relief Alkaline Soothing Smoothie!
- Alkaline Recipe #181 – Shredded Zesty Brussels & Kale
- Alkaline Recipe #182: The Fat Flush Juice
TIPS — How to Get Kale, Spinach & Leafy Greens Every Day:
- Have a side salad with every lunch and dinner
- Blend spinach into soups, sauces, dips
- Have a juice or smoothie every day!
Cancer-Fighter #3: Beans, Pulses
Black beans, navy beans, pinto beans, garbanzos, lentils, green beans have all been shown to actively help lower the risk of multiple cancers – particularly colon/colorectal, stomach, breast and liver cancer.
Certain phytonutrients in pinto beans including cinnamic acids, secoisolariciresinol, and coumestrol are proven to help prevent these types of cancers, especially stomach cancer—are also provided in important amounts by beans.
Black beans provide special support for digestive tract health, and particularly our colon. The indigestible fraction (IF) in black beans has recently been shown to be larger than most other foods and is the perfect mix of substances for allowing bacteria in the colon to produce butyric acid. Lowered colon cancer risk is related to the outstanding IF content of this legume.
As we’ve discussed, chronic oxidative stress and chronic inflammation are both leading causes of many cancers. These beans and pulses give an excellent supply of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory nutrients.
Navy beans in particular are a great source of the alkaline minerals manganese and copper, trace minerals that are a cofactor of a key oxidative enzyme called superoxide dismutase. Superoxide dismutase disarms free radicals (which are the result AND cause of oxidative stress) produced within our cells.
Beans and pulses are also a great source of fibre and especially folate – and diets rich in folate have been shown to be protective against many cancers, especially breast cancer in women and colorectal cancer.
- Alkaline Diet Recipe #150: Black Bean Hummous
- Alkaline Recipe #32 (Fibre-ful) Tuscan Bean Soup
- Alkaline Diet Recipe #149: Baby Pea & Broad Bean Spread
TIPS — How to Get Beans In Every Day:
- Blend beans into your morning smoothie – adds texture and a huge protein/fibre hit!
- Add cannelini or kidney beans to soups before blending
- Always have one of the bean dips above on hand for snacks!
Cancer-Fighter #4: Healthy Fats & Oils
I know it seems like every single article I’m hammering on about healthy fats and oils, but it’s only because they are just so important and it still feels like there are a LOT of people who are still avoiding them, thinking they’ll make them fat.
I recommend consuming at least 2-3 tablespoons of omega 3 daily and at least 1 dessert spoon of coconut oil too. (If you need some reassurance that the saturated fats in coconut oil are good for you – read this guide)
The sources of omega 3 are not super-important (fish, krill, flax etc) just make sure you get it and from a good source and try to mix it up a bit!
We typically consume way too much omega 6 in relation to omega 3 – with most people falling in the 6:3 ratio of about 20:1.
However, dozens of recent studies show that if you can get this ratio down to at least 2:1 if not reversed to 1:2 then could significantly reduce prostate, breast and other cancer tumor risk and growth rates.
In one study, researchers compared blood levels of polyunsaturated fats in 476 men diagnosed with prostate cancer and the same number of healthy controls. The highest blood levels of EPA and DHA, the omega-3 fats were associated with a 41% reduction in prostate cancer risk, while the highest levels of omega-6 fats correlated with greatly increased risk of prostate cancer.
If you are vegetarian or vegan you can find other sources of omega 3 fats, including flax of course, chia seeds and from leafy greens.
I love to include flax every day in my meals (not for cooking – use coconut oil for cooking). And in the context of prostate and breast cancer prevention, there are few foods that are as well researched or powerful.
The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory benefits of flaxseeds make them a great addition to ANY diet. The high lignin content of flax seeds makes it a great tool in the fight against hormone-based cancers such as breast and prostate cancer.
Three of the lignans found in flaxseeds—secoisolariciresinol, matairecinol, and pinoresinol are converted by the body into enterolactone (ENL) and enterodiol (END) in the digestive system. These phytoestrogens have direct affects on our hormonal balance and are powerful in preventing these hormone-related cancers that we know are two of the most common.
I strongly recommend you adding flax to your diet – even if you just use it as your oil in salad dressings it will have a big impact.
In a 2013 study coconut oil was shown to help protect healthy cells and induce cell death in cancerous cells, providing great anti-cancer properties on two fronts.
It’s long been understood that ‘good’ cholesterol significantly lowers cancer risk and coconut oil not only lowers ‘bad’ cholesterol, but it simultaneously increases good cholesterol at a rapid rate.
Healthy Oil-Rich Recipes:
- Alkaline Recipe #160: Coconut Chia Cream Pot
- Alkaline Recipe #168: The Reflux-Relief Alkaline Soothing Smoothie!
- Alkaline Diet Recipe #157: Chai-Infused Vanilla Quinoa Porridge
TIPS — How to Get Healthy Fats Every Day:
- Add a dessert spoon of coconut oil to your morning smoothie
- Use flax oil in your salad dressings instead of olive oil
- Add chia seeds to your morning smoothie, cereal or just have a chia pot of chia soaked in coconut milk (for 15 mins)
- Snack on almonds, walnuts, cashews
- Add cashews and almonds (soaked) to your smoothies
Cancer-Fighter #5: Garlic
The same sulfur compounds that give garlic its strong odor can stop cancer causing substances from forming in your body, speed up DNA repair and kill cancer cells.
The wonderful Sayer Ji at Greenmedinfo has compiled over 4245 studies on the health benefits of garlic and has found, in particular with regards to cancer, garlic is especially potent.
He specifically found research relating to these cancers that garlic has been found to protect against and potentially reverse:
1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia
2. Acute Myeloid Leukemia
3. Basal Cell Carcinoma
4. Breast Cancer
5. Cervical Cancer
6. Colon Cancer
7. Endometrial Cancer
8. Gastric Cancer
9. Leukemia: Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
10. Liver Cancer
14. Pancreatic Cancer
A lot of the benefit of garlic comes from the sulfur found in these foods, and so don’t forget to also include other foods from the alliaceous group; onions, leeks, shallots and chives. The sulfur in this group of foods can protect against prostate, colon, breast and lung cancer cells.
- Garlic & Ginger Tonic Tea
- Alkaline Diet Recipe #122: Gluten-Free Spinach Garlic Tofu Burgers
- Alkaline Recipe #4: The Ultimate Liver Cleanse Recipe
TIPS — How to Get Garlic Every Day:
- Blended with avocado for a spicy-kicked guacamole
- Roast for 15 minutes for a delicious spread for toast/crackers
- Added raw, minced into any salad dressing
Cancer-Fighter #6: Cauliflower & Broccoli
These two cruciferous (Brassicaceae) veggies are potent cancer fighters.
The unique combination of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-detox benefits of broccoli make it a unique food in terms of cancer prevention. the research is strongest in showing decreased risk of prostate cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, bladder cancer, and ovarian cancer.
Broccoli also contains sulforaphane and indole-3-carbinols (I3Cs). These are two potent cancer fighters. They help to detoxify the body and help precancerous cells from developing into malignant tumors.
Cauliflower is just as awesome. There are dozens of studies linking cauliflower-containing diets to cancer prevention, particularly with respect to the following types of cancer: bladder cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, and ovarian cancer.
Similarly to broccoli, it’s the combination of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and pro-detox compounds that make it so powerful in fighting against cancer.
As an excellent source of vitamin C, and a very good source of manganese, cauliflower provides us with two core conventional antioxidants. But its antioxidant support extends far beyond the conventional nutrients into the realm of phytonutrients. Beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, caffeic acid, cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, quercetin, rutin, and kaempferol are among cauliflower’s key antioxidant phytonutrients. This broad spectrum antioxidant support helps lower the risk of oxidative stress in our cells.
Cauliflower is rich in glucosinolates, but it’s one of the glucosinolates in particular that’s found in cauliflower—glucobrassicin that is of particular interest. This glucosinolate can be readily converted into a molecule called I3C which is an anti-inflammatory compound that operates at the genetic level. This means it prevents the initiation of inflammatory responses at a very early stage – making it a potent cancer-fighter.
Broccoli & Cauliflower-Rich Recipes:
- Alkaline Recipe #187: Immune Boosting Vegetable Soup
- Alkaline Recipe #163: Kick-Ass Crispy Cauliflower ‘Buffalo Wings’!
- Alkaline Recipe #186: The Live Dirty, Eat Clean Bowl
TIPS — How to Get Broccoli & Cauliflower In Every Day:
- Cauliflower can be pulsed in a food processor to make cauliflower-rice – to replace rice or cous cous
- Broccoli can be shaved into any sauce or salad without the eater being able to taste or notice it!
- Both can be roasted coated in coconut oil and dusted with crushed coriander and cumin seed for a delicious side
Cancer-Fighter #7: Bell Pepper/Capsicum
Bell peppers (known as capsicum in Australia and just peppers in the UK) are incredibly antioxidant-rich, and this accounts for a lot of the know powerful anti-cancer potential of this delicious, crunchy food.
However, bell pepper is also rich in the same sulfur compounds as garlic that are known to repair DNA tissue and destroy cancer cells.
We can’t ignore the antioxidant power of peppers for too long though as they are simply packed with these anti-cancer goodies.
While research has generally looked mostly at the carotenoid content of bell pepper, they actually contain a considerably wide range of antioxidants.
According to WhFoods.org, bell pepper contains significant quantities of:
• Hydroxycinnamic Acids
◦ ferulic acid
◦ cinnamic acid
All of these antioxidants work alongside pepper’s natural anti-inflammatory capacity to deliver a cancer-fighting punch that few other veggies can match!
Bell Pepper-Rich Recipes:
- Recipe #29: Alkaline Stuffed Peppers
- Alkaline Recipe #185 The Kidney Rejuvenation Juice
- Red Pepper, Walnut and Almond Omega Spread
TIPS — How to Get Bell Pepper Every Day:
- Grilled for 5 minutes to get a charred taste – delicious in any salad
- Raw as a crunchy snack
- They go great in any juice or smoothie to add a little sweetness
- Blended into sauces
Specific Foods for Specific Cancers
In researching this guide, it was apparent that while certain foods such as those above are awesome in the fight against a huge number of different cancers, each cancer had it’s unique foods too.
Here’s a list of foods that were particularly beneficial for those most common cancers that accounted for 80-85% of new cases:
Iodine rich foods- seaweed, kelp, navy beans, cranberries, salmon.
Foods with Vit A and VIt c
Fibre rich foods
Polyphenol rich foods
Tomatoes and tomato products
Legumes especially soyfoods
Nuts and seeds
Colon and rectal
Chilli / Hot Peppers
Green leafy foods
whfoods.org site search
Next Steps & How to Take Action
The bottom line is that by following an alkaline diet (and by it’s nature a diet that is antioxidant-rich and anti-inflammatory) you will be doing a great service to your body in protecting it from cancer.
Of course, there is no absolute guarantee with anything in life, but it is very widely accepted that the majority of cancers are avoidable to a large degree with the right dietary and lifestyle choices.
By following an alkaline diet the majority of the time (there is always room for treats/cheat meals (or days!), you will be fortifying your body not only against cancer but a lot of other preventable, degenerative conditions such as heart disease and type II diabetes.
You don’t have to be perfect, and you can accomplish a LOT by following a few simple rules.
In my Alkaline Starter Pack here I show you the 5 simple things you can do each day that don’t require a lot of effort or willpower, that will start to get your diet alkaline and on track and give you noticeable results quickly.
It’s 100% absolutely free, and includes my now-famous Acid/Alkaline Food Chart and some more recipes to kick things off.
And if you want it all done-for-you…
And if you want to really get going now, and have most of the hard work done for you I highly recommend you check out my Alkaline Recipe System, which includes my Alkaline Diet Recipe Book with over 150 recipes PLUS seven different week-long menu plans with all of your shopping lists and recipes laid out for you.
All you have to do is buy the foods on the shopping list, follow the menu and you’re set.
Until then – let’s protect, fortify and strengthen our body with these delicious anti-cancer, alkaline, antioxidant-rich, anti-inflammatory powerhouse foods!
PS all of my scientific references are below, but below that is a space where you can leave me a comment or ask me any question – I’d love to hear from you.
Scientific References & Literature:
Ambrosone CB, Tang L. Cruciferous vegetable intake and cancer prevention: role of nutrigenetics. Cancer Prev Res (Phila Pa). 2009 Apr;2(4):298-300. 2009. (link)
Ambrosini GL, de Klerk NH, Fritschi L et al. Fruit, vegetable, vitamin A intakes, and prostate cancer risk. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2008;11(1):61-6. 2008. (link)
Bhattacharya A, Tang L, Li Y, et al. Inhibition of bladder cancer development by allyl isothiocyanate. Carcinogenesis. 2010 Feb;31(2):281-6. 2010. (link)
Bryant CS, Kumar S, Chamala S, et al. Sulforaphane induces cell cycle arrest by protecting RB-E2F-1 complex in epithelial ovarian cancer cells. Molecular Cancer 2010, 9:47. 2010. (link)
Clarke JD, Dashwood RH and Ho E. Multi-targeted prevention of cancer by sulforaphane. Cancer Lett. 2008 Oct 8;269(2):291-304. 2008. (link)
Chen P, Li C, Li X, et al. Higher dietary folate intake reduces the breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Cancer. 2014 Apr 29;110(9):2327-38. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2014.155. Epub 2014 Mar 25. Review. (link)
Cooper AJL, Krasnikov BF, Niatsetskaya ZV et al. Cysteine S-conjugate β-lyases: Important roles in the metabolism of naturally occurring sulfur and selenium-containing compounds, xenobiotics and anticancer agents. Amino Acids. 2011 June; 41(1): 7—27. 2011. (link)
Galeone C. Allium vegetables intake and endometrial cancer risk. Public Health Nutr. 2009 Sep;12(9):1576-9. Epub 2008 Nov 6. PMID: 18986589 (link)
Hernandez-Ramirez R, Galvan-Portillo M, Ward M et al. Dietary intake of polyphenols, nitrate and nitrite and gastric cancer risk in Mexico City. Int J Cancer. 2009 September 15; 125(6): 1424-1430. 2009. (link)
Higdon JV, Delage B, Williams DE, et al. Cruciferous Vegetables and Human Cancer Risk: Epidemiologic Evidence and Mechanistic Basis. Pharmacol Res. 2007 March; 55(3): 224-236. 2007. (link)
Hodge G, Davis S, Rice M, Tapp H, Saxon B, Revesz T. Garlic compounds selectively kill childhood pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells in vitro without reducing T-cell function: Potential therapeutic use in the treatment of ALL. Biologics. 2008 Mar;2(1):143-9. PMID: 19707437 (link)
Hu J, Straub J, Xiao D, et al. Phenethyl isothiocyanate, a cancer chemopreventive constituent of cruciferous vegetables, inhibits cap-dependent translation by regulating the level and phosphorylation of 4E-BP1. Cancer Res. 2007 Apr 15;67(8):3569-73. 2007. (link)
Larsson SC, Andersson SO, Johansson JE, et al. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of bladder cancer: a prospective cohort study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2008 Sep;17(9):2519-22. 2008. (link)
Silberstein JL, Parsons JK. Evidence-based principles of bladder cancer and diet. Urology. 2010 Feb;75(2):340-6. 2010.
Thompson CA, Habermann TM, Wang AH, et al. Antioxidant intake from fruits, vegetables and other sources and risk of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma: the Iowa Women’s Health Study. Int J Cancer. 2010 Feb 15;126(4):992-1003. 2010. (link)
Tarraga Lopez PJ, Albero JS, and Rodriguez-Montes JA. Primary and secondary prevention of colorectal cancer. Clin Med Insights Gastroenterol. 2014 Jul 14;7:33-46. (link)
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