Do We Need to Avoid These Oxalate-Containing Foods?
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Written Version: The TRUTH About Oxalates
Oxalates & Diet: The Truth, Myths, Questions and Unknowns
Spinach is going to kill you man! Your vegetables are TOXIC! Broccoli is gonna hunt you down! Or something like that. This is the TRUTH about oxalate…
Over the past 3-4 years oxalates have been getting a lot of attention. We are being told that they are responsible for everything bad going on in our body. We are being told that vegetables are trying to kill us. We’re being told that fresh, green vegetables are TOXIC.
There are people out there who are spreading a fair amount of fear around the issue of oxalates. The argument being put forward is pretty simple: oxalates cause damage in the body, and certain foods contain high oxalates and should be considered TOXIC.
Strong words. Toxic. Look there is a LOT of nuance here, and a ton of detail that is so important. Sadly in nutrition these days there is a lot of financial gain to be had by being shocking and contrarian. And people tend to skip the detail, skip the nuance and jump to the big conclusion that suits their narrative. Sadly it’s a tactic I’m seeing more and more of…saying something everyone THINKS is healthy…is suddenly KILLING YOU. It gets attention and clicks, and rarely comes with any substance or truth.
And it makes me kinda mad. And negative emotions are acid-forming, so I don’t get mad…I get into the studies. And that soothes me. The studies soothe me!
Look, as with everything with health, it’s rarely completely black and white. There is nuance and detail, and we have to look at what the data tells us. For a small number of folks, being aware of oxalates is a worthy consideration. But even for those in at-risk groups, it actually has a lot LESS to do with the oxalate we EAT than we’re being led to believe. Interesting. So today, you’re going to get complete clarity on the topic of oxalate.
We’re going to dig into what oxalates are, where they come from, how the body deals with them, what issues they can cause, who is at risk (and who isn’t), what the studies tell us and what your next steps are.
But right up, I want to let you know, 99% of people watching this will NOT need to worry about oxalate. There is a fair amount of data and studies around this and today I want to get you complete clarity over this issue..
Part One: What are oxalates.
What are oxalates? Oxalates, or oxalic acid salts, are an organic compound widely found in nature, including in many plants, animals, and humans. They are part of our daily diet, they are in various foods, and are also a natural waste product of our body’s metabolism.
Oxalates have a simple yet unique chemical structure, consisting of two carbon atoms and four oxygen atoms.
In the plant world, oxalates play lots of different. For instance, they may help regulate calcium levels within plants or act as a defense mechanism against herbivores. And in our diet, oxalates are found in loads of different foods and drinks including spinach, chocolate and tea.
Now, they have no actual role in the human body. They are simply a waste product of our metabolism. And this is interesting, and its something that is often missed: oxalates dont only come from foods, they are also produced within the body 24/7 from the metabolism and breakdown of foods, including and most often foods that dont even contain oxalate like meat, dairy, gelatine and more.
And another interesting nuance is that the health risks are actually less about the oxalate themselves, and more about our body’s ability to get rid of them. I’m jumping ahead a bit there. We’ll get back to that. So let’s take a step back and look at where they come from…
WHERE DO THEY COME FROM.
Studies show that around 50% of the oxalate that is processed within the body is exogenous – in other words it is dietary, we eat it, and the other 50% is endogenous, ie. it comes from within the body itself as a byproduct of metabolism.
First we should look at the dietary sources of oxalate, as this is the fear mongering claims from certain books, websites and diet movements such as the carnivore diet, are coming from. These pesky evil vegetables that are trying to kill us. The argument is that eating foods such as spinach, broccoli, chia seeds, and so on increases the oxalates in our body and causes all of these sicknesses and diseases.
I was a fan of this one – spinach is going to kill you in this one.
I will come back to the study that this guy is referencing here in just a moment by the way, because this is where we need to be careful – and its a great example of making sure we can read studies properly, and certainly that we take the time to look into studies ourselves, when we hear a big outrageous claim.
So, first, let’s look at the dietary sources of oxalate.
Now this is where it got a little confusing. I found one author of a scary fear-monging book saying that cruciferous vegetables are LOW in oxalate, and another author’s site and this is also well followed telling me that broccoli and cauliflower are HIGH in oxalate.
WebMD give a lovely rounding up of ALL leafy greens to be avoided, despite many of this incredibly nutrient-dense foods having absolutely zero oxalate in them at all. In searching and searching I could not find one definitive list. Now I know some people might think that its the same with the acid/alkaline food charts, but it really isnt’ – with all the charts out there for listing acid and alkaline foods, they are all 98% the same, there are jsut some little differences. The oxalate charts I found, again, from big, established sites, businesses and authors were COMPLETELY DIFFERENT.
I’m highlighting this as a big issue because the majority of the foods they are saying people should avoid are REALLY nutrient dense. SO it MATTERS if they are incorrectly classifying them.
BUT, and this is a pretty big BUT…you can probably tell I am on the side of the argument that oxalate-containing foods are of practically zero concern to 99.9% of people, and these sensationalist fear-mongering charlatans are using a controversy to try and sell you something…
But sites like WebMD – a huge site, with perceived authority, with tens of millions of visitors a year, telling people who are legitimately worried about oxalate – that ALL leafy greens are high in oxalate and should be avoided – is simply flipping stupid and so disingenuous. They should be ashamed of spreading half truths like this. It’s lazy.
But if you do look at 10 sites to find out what is high and low oxalate, you will get different answers.
From our perspective we would only be worried about the more alkaline-forming foods that are on these high-oxalate lists…and those included spinach, kale, bok choi, broccoli, cauliflower, nuts, seeds, and berries. But again some list them as low oxalate, others as high oxalate.
And then there are other foods on these lists that are not alkaline-forming including chocolate, tea, peanuts, gluten-containing grains, and a few more…but we don’t need to worry about those.
But according to this argument, these would be the primary sources of oxalate. Spinach, kale, broccoli, berries, leafy greens, nuts, seeds. All incredibly nutrient-dense foods.
And these are the primary exogenous sources of oxalate. According to the oxalate argument crowd, this is how oxalate gets in our body from outside.
Within the body:
However, as I mentioned, this is only half the story, because HALF of the oxalate in our body is generated from WITHIN. This is where oxalate is created in the body via our regular, normal metabolism and bodily processes. Now, this is where it gets a bit more nuanced and a bit interesting, because the oxalate is created in our body through the metabolism of nutrients that are PRECURSORS to oxalate. When we digest and process these nutrients, it creates oxalates. This is where the ‘evil toxic vegetables’ argument comes a little undone.
Let’s look at three of the most common ways oxalate are CREATED within the body.
First up, amino acids. There are a few amino acids that have been studied as precursors to oxalate formation in the body including glycine, serine, tyrosine, tryptophan, fenny-lala-neen, and hydroxy-proline. The most well investigated is glycine, which is a BIG, very common precursor to oxalate formation within the body.
High glycine foods include, meat, fish, seafoods, gelatine, collagen, dairy, eggs, wheat. These are all acid-forming foods you would not eat in large quantities on the Alkaline Life of course. There are some alkaline-forming foods that contain glycine, including beans, lentils and pumpkin seeds, but these are not high volume foods for most of us living alkaline. But take note here: the biggest contributor to oxalate generated within the body is the consumption of high glycine foods: meat, dairy, eggs, seafood, gelatine, collagen.
Interesting how the carnivore folks are screaming that veggies are killing us because of it’s oxalate content, when meat, gelatine, dairy, eggs are the biggest contributors to internal oxalate formation, which is 50% of the oxalate in the body! Interesting.
Fructose. Now, this is an important one: fructose. We know the impact that fructose can have on the liver, and its primary role in inflammation in the body. But studies also show that an association between fructose intake and kidney stone formation. Fructose consumption leads to oxalate synthesis, either directly or indirectly through serine metabolism. We’ve talked a lot about fructose, fruit and where the actual dangers and concerns are. There’s a short video about that linked below this one.
We are not talking about cutting fruit out. We’re talking about processed foods, fruit JUICES, dried fruits, and foods containing high fructose corn syrup, syrups like agave, maple etc. and artificially sweetened foods. Basically processed rubbish.
The other detail here, is the studies showed that this was a bigger concern in people with BMIs in the obese range, and those with type 2 diabetes. This made a big difference to the urinary oxalate excretion. And this is our first glance into the concept that pre-existing conditions matter. And we’ll get into this in more depth in just a second. But take note: those with high BMIs, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes have far less efficient oxalate excretion than those without those conditions. Makes you wonder whether fixing that issue might be a better way to go rather than eliminating leafy greens, fruits, vegetables, nuts and seeds. Interesting.
Ascorbic Acid. The third food source of oxalate formation in the body, is ascorbic acid. Or vitamin C. This is a confusing one isn’t it. We NEED vitamin C…but vitamin C causes oxalate formation in the body. Interesting. So if eating these oxalate are going to kill us, if oxalate in the body is THAT AWFUL…we should eat NO vitamin C, right? We should be avoiding that vitamin C as much as we can. Hang on…is vitamin C TOXIC as well?
OF course this is rubbish. Studies tell us that ascorbic acid contributes up to 40% of our endogenous, internal, oxalate content. That’s a LOT.
But it’s vitamin C. We can’t stop consuming vitamin C. That would lead to far more serious health issues.
SO it prompts an interesting question. Maybe having oxalate in the body isn’t an issue for 99.9% of people.
Interesting. I’ll explain how this is an influence as we explore …
How does the body process oxalate?
To deepen our understanding of oxalate, and where the concerns are, we need to understand how the body processes the oxalate we ingest, and that is produced internally. There are three that are worth consideration:
First is our Intestinal Tract. Exogenous and endogenous oxalate is absorbed along the intestinal tract. Digestive health matters. Hyperabsorption of oxalate occurs where there is digestive imbalance. Digestive diseases such as Crohn’s, celiac, ulcerative colitis can increase our sensitivity to oxalate. This is a nuance that is often missed. In practically every case where one of my Alkaline Life Club members has told me they have shown a high sensitivity to oxalate in testing, they have a digestive condition such as Crohn’s or ulcerative colitis.
We also need to talk here about Enteric hyperoxaluria – Enteric hyperoxaluria can occur in individuals who have had gastrointestinal surgery, such as bariatric surgery or bowel resection, or those with those gastrointestinal diseases like Crohn’s disease we just mentioned. These conditions can disrupt normal fat absorption which has a flow on effect on the body’s ability to properly break down and eliminate oxalate. A loss of proper fat absorption makes oxalate considerably more risky.
This is a very, very small percentage of people. Lowering dietary oxalate is only a relevant concern for specific individuals who have other conditions that require support, and once those conditions are resolved, oxalate does not need to be a concern.
Having a healthy gut flora is also essential. The human digestive tract doesn’t use enzymes to break down oxalate like other animals, instead a particular gut bacteria called Oxalo-bacter formigenes. This bacteria uses oxalate as its primary energy source, breaking down the oxalate, and allowing easy excretion. We know that long-term antibiotic use dramatically increases the risk of stone formation, and this is why. When the gut gets stripped of the beneficial bacteria, such as O. Formigenes, we cannot break down and excrete the oxalate, and stone risk goes up.
Again, it is not consuming the foods containing oxalate thats the issue, it’s the imbalance in the body. It’s the body’s inability to process the oxalate and remove it. If the gut is in balance, the body easily deals with the oxalate.
It stands to reason that if repopulate the gut and nourish the digestive system, the body is able to process oxalates appropriately and risk lowers significantly.
Next we need to look at the liver. The liver plays an active role in producing appropriate amounts of oxalate within the body. When the liver is compromised there is the risk of increased oxalate production. Again, and I know I keep mentioning this, but the oxalate produced within our body is responsible for at least 50% of the oxalate the body has to eliminate. Foods are only responsible for the other half. Simply cutting out spinach, kale and broccoli is not going to solve your problem, and cutting out these nutrient dense foods will, it WILL lead to other problems, and could actually make the oxalate issue WORSE, as these foods are nourishing to the liver, kidneys and digestive system!
And again, the pre-existing conditions play a huge role here. The oxalate thing is not a general population thing! The main issues with the liver overproducing oxalate are specifically in those individuals with that genetic condition primary hyperoxalurias.
In the liver, glyoxylate has been identified as a direct precursor to oxalate, and lactate dehydrogenase as the key enzyme in converting glyoxylate to oxalate. Those with primary hyperoxalurias have enzyme deficiencies involved in glyoxylate metabolism that are entirely expressed in the liver. If you do not have this genetic condition you have nothing to worry about.
Again, not a general public concern when it comes to oxalate, but rather something to keep an eye on for those with specific, and fairly rare conditions.
As you might already know, the kidneys play a crucial role in processing oxalate. They filter oxalate out of the blood, and it is then excreted in the urine. The efficiency of the kidneys in this process is important in maintaining a balance of oxalate levels in the body.
The story we are given by those warning us off higher oxalate containing foods, is that when we consume oxalate, it stresses the kidneys, and increases the risk of stone formation. But this is misleading, and there are important factors being missed.
In human studies, in healthy subjects, approximately 95% of the oxalate absorbed by the gut and produced endogenously is excreted in urine with no problems at all. Again, it’s those folks with pre-existing conditions that need to be more careful and considered. In a well designed study, the researchers found that when given a dosage of synthetic sodium oxalate, patients with the rare condition idiopathic hyper-calciuria or those who have had bariatric surgery had significantly more rapid increases in urinary oxalate compared to healthy individuals.
So again, for healthy individuals, there are no concerns. The kidneys are designed for this, and process it with no issue, even when given elevated doses far beyond what we would find in the diet.
So let’s summarise where we are up to, because we’ve covered a lot already.
We know that 50% of oxalate that the body has to eliminate comes from diet, and 50% is produced within the body. The foods implicated are spinach, kale, broccoli, cauliflower, bok choi, berries, some nuts and seeds, and less healthy foods such as chocolate, black tea, peanuts, and gluten-containing grains such as wheat. But, there is absolutely no consensus on the so called high oxalate foods, with some ‘experts’ for example saying broccoli is high, others saying low. It’s definitely unclear.
We produce 50% of the oxalate WITHIN our body. The amount produced within the body is dramatically increased if we are consuming foods that contain a lot of the pre-cursors to oxalate including amino acids, ascorbic acid and fructose. The amino acid glycine leads to a LOT of oxalate formation and is found in meats, dairy, and eggs.
We know that the body processes oxalate in the gut, and that a lack of the bacteria O. Formigenes makes oxalate related stone issues FAR more of a threat than the consumption of high oxalate foods.
Other digestive conditions dramatically increase the risk including Crohn’s, celiac, and if the person has had bariatric surgery, or has been on antibiotics.
We know that the kidneys process a lot of the oxalate, and consuming oxalate leads to a spike in urinary oxalate, but that in healthy subjects 95% is eliminated rapidly. It is only in subjects who have idiopathic hyper-calciuria, have had bariatric surgery, have digestive issues such as Crohn’s, or who have the genetic condition primary hyper-oxa-lurias that there is an issue with the kidneys. For everyone else, oxalate can be ignored.
Why are we told they are an issue?
So what is the issue with oxalate in the body? There are two primary claims. Well, two primary claims we will take seriously, the tweet I showed earlier saying smoothies with spinach in could KILL YOU, we’ll ignore that one for now.
The first claim is stone formation:
Now, when we’re talking about kidney stones, its important to remember there are four types:
- Calcium stones (which are related to oxalate)
- Uric acid stones which form as a result of diet-induced acidosis, excess protein metabolism, and excess fructose from processed foods.
- Struvite Stones: which form as a result of infection in the urinary system
- Cystine Stones: which form as a result of a hereditary condition that causes cystine to leak back into the urine.
The first two are diet related to a degree, and the first one, calcium stones, are what the anti-oxalate crowd are saying that we are putting ourselves at risk for. Interestingly, if we remove spinach, kale, leafy greens, nuts, seeds, berries, cruciferous etc, we dramatically raise our risk of uric acid stones. Hmm, interesting. And we already know that oxalate calcium stones are only a risk in a very very tiny percentage of the population, and even in that small percentage, the risk can be far more easily, and more productively removed by addressing the reason for the risk, such as gut bacteria imbalance, digestive imbalance, high BMI, type 2 diabetes, and so on. Rather than eliminating really healthy foods like greens.
Yep, the second claim is that these oxalate containing foods are ‘anti-nutrients’…
Oh what’s in a name…
Anti-nutrients….what? These things are AGAINST NUTRIENTS?! What evil in the world would be ‘anti-nutrients’. The name is disappointing, I’ll admit that. But the truth is, that these foods and chemicals were given this name in a context completely separate from the study of human health.
In the scientific community, the term anti-nutrient was attributed to certain plants because some of the compounds in the plant can be linked to a lower absorption rate of some of the other nutrients in that plant.
BUT, it sounds great to make an argument against them. Shocking anti-nutrients are killing you. The headlines write themselves.
The simple fact is, there are other terms for this collection of compounds. Phytonutrients being one of them. Don’t sound so scary now. Almost sounds good? These are also all ANTI-OXIDANTS. Hang on, aren’t they supposed be killing us? The name indeed.
The claim is that ‘anti-nutrients’ stop us from absorbing minerals such as calcium, zinc, and other minerals. They will lead to mineral deficiencies (which is ironic because not consuming spinach, kale, broccoli, seeds, nuts and so on will lead to mineral deficiencies too…interesting).
And look, there is a little bit of truth to this. They can block some absorption.
BUT the devil is in the detail, right?
The most striking thing is that there is almost no evidence in the literature to suggest that oxalates work in this way. Many ‘authors’ and ‘content creators’ are seeing that oxalates are dubbed an ‘anti-nutrient’ and are therefore assuming that all anti nutrients have this deleterious effect on mineral absorption. While it is true that some do, such as some lectins and phytates, this is not a characteristic of oxalate.
Oxalate does not block nutrient absorption.
And even in those anti nutrients that DO block mineral absorption, the truth is that:
A) the amount of mineral being blocked is TINY
B) it is only DURING THAT MEAL// INGESTION
We’re given the impression that it is blocking ALL of the mineral in that food and beyond…it keeps on blocking all day every day. The reality is, that the foods we’re being told to avoid are so abundant in these minerals we are missing out FAR more by avoiding these foods, than eating the food containing the mineral and having a tiny percentage of it blocked.
I wanted to touch on this because this is an important note when you’re being told about other anti-nutrient compounds or foods.
And remember, while the oxalate doom-merchants are saying that oxalate containing foods ‘bind oxalate to minerals and stop the body absorbing them’, there is no evidence in the literature to substantiate this, so you can 100% ignore this. It is simply not a risk.
So the questions we need to ask here are:
- If anti-nutrients are not a part of the conversation, is the only risk a greater likelihood of kidney stones?
- Is this claim true? Is the oxalate in the diet the issue? What does the literature tell us?
- Is this claim true for everyone, for you, me and the general public, or only for those with super specific circumstances.
So, what does the literature tell us?
To distill these 6-7 questions down into one, what we really need to know is this: do you and I need to reduce or eliminate foods that contain oxalates?
The paper that was on the screen earlier from the carnivore guy who was saying vegetables will kill you is this on the screen now. Big bold headline, but it’s not even a study. Its a ‘teaching case’ paper. Very different. Very very different. But easy in a screenshot to pass off as a study. Very disingenuous. I am a little annoyed at the researchers too for leading with such a loaded headline, but when you dig into it, you see that it is a case report of one lady, ONE, who ticked a lot of the boxes of those pre-existing conditions including having had bariatric surgery, had type 2 diabetes for 20 years, digestive issues, and long term antibiotic use. She did develop complications but was also an incredibly rare situation for someone to have four of the major pre-existing conditions. There were also several other mitigating factors, and because this isn’t a study, the lady simply presented herself at the doctors and there is a huge scope for some of her symptoms being a complete coincidence with her decision to have green juices for a few days. As we already saw from the studies a few minutes ago, meat, dairy, eggs, seafood contribute a huge amount of oxalate in the body too through their glycine content. There is always nuance, and this is why you dont ever see a study with ONE PERSON.
Sadly though, this is the study that the anti-oxalate crowd are using to beat the vegetables down with.
Unfortunately for those guys though, there is a lot of data on this, many studies, and thankfully for you and I, they show the complete opposite.
This review, called “Is There Such a Thing as “Anti-Nutrients”? A Narrative Review of Perceived Problematic Plant Compounds” published in the journal Nutrients in 2020, reviewed 17 human studies into oxalate and the relative risk of kidney stones, and found no compelling evidence.
There IS a study that found that higher levels of urinary oxalate excretion were independently associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease. However, in the subgroup analysis, an increased risk of kidney disease was observed only in those participants with really low calcium, levels levels below 9.3 mg/dl which is absurdly low, and easily rectified. It showed no risk in those with sufficient calcium. So the low calcium was the issue.
This study on the screen now, a prospective study involving almost 250,000 men and women, across 20+ years found no link between dietary oxalate and kidney stone formation. No link. Even in those consuming the highest amount of oxalate-containing foods. Interestingly, in this study, even in the lowest calcium groups there was no stone risk.
And this is the thing that bothers me, again, you have bestselling books, calling healthy foods ‘TOXIC’ and that book has ZERO scientific references in it. NONE. No referenced studies, just a person saying oxalates will kill you, with no foundation. This really bothers me.
And here’s the kicker, and where the truth starts to be revealed. Dietary potassium, magnesium, and phytate all decrease kidney stone formation through a bunch of different mechanisms. Despite significantly more dietary oxalates in these foods – the minerals and antioxidants they contain mean that participants in this study who ate more of those foods, decreased their risk of kidney stones.
The protective and synergistic effects of phytate, potassium, calcium, and other phytochemicals all abundant in these high-alkaline, nutrient dense vegetables, leafy greens, nuts and seeds meant that regardless of oxalate content, their risk was significantly lowered.
So while the carnivores and such like are saying ‘dont eat these leafy greens, broccoli, veggies, nuts and seeds because of the oxalate’ you are removing the exact foods your body needs to protect the kidneys and prevent stones!
The oxalate makes practically no difference, but you’re removing these essential nutrients from your diet that lower stone risk. And not jsut calcium stones, but uric acid stones too.
And when we overlay the studies on diet-induced acidosis, i.e. studies into the effect of eating an alkaline or acid diet, the data becomes even more compelling. As you’ll see on the screen now, the pattern continues – when you add these high-alkaline, nutrient dense foods – completely ignoring the oxalate content of these foods – the risk of kidney stones goes down.
In this first study, an In-depth study comprising 187 renal patients found a significant link between dietary acid load and kidney stone formation. An alkaline diet removed the risk. Interestingly, the risk of raised oxalate levels was not found, regardless of the patients eating a more alkaline diet eating far more ‘oxalate’ heavy foods.
In this study called Dietary Protein, Potassium, Diet–Dependent Net Acid Load, and Risk of Incident Kidney Stones. Using data from the Nurses Study, 6308 incidents of kidney stones were analyzed with the researchers finding where the diet contained more alkaline minerals, including potassium, the risk of kidney stones went down significantly, again, regardless of oxalate content.
And similarly, in Dietary style and acid load in an Italian population of calcium kidney stone formers., a group of 157 stone formers were compared to a control group, and net dietary acid load was a significant risk factor for stone formation. Not oxalate – dietary acid load.
So should anyone be concerned?
Kidney stone formation is of course a real thing, and can be a threat and complication with patients with chronic kidney disease. However, all of the data suggests that dietary oxalate consumption is irrelevant.
Higher urine levels of oxalate are seen in those with specific pre-existing conditions such as the genetic condition primary hyper-oxa-lurias, the rare idiopathic hyper-calciuria or those who have had bariatric surgery. This does not mean they have to eliminate all oxalate foods, but they should exercise a little more caution, while making sure their diet is still alkaline-rich, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant-rich too, containing all of those supportive alkaline minerals such as calcium, potassium, zinc, iron, and so on.
Those with digestive imbalance such as Crohn’s may also want to fast track repairing and healing that imbalance. There is an increased risk of higher urinary oxalate, but the data tells us that eliminating these foods such as leafy greens, nuts, seeds, vegetables, berries, and so on, with their potent anti-inflammatory properties, antioxidants profile and mineral density and range, is going to slow the repair and recovery from that digestive condition. In other words, eliminating these foods will do more harm than good.
Listen, with many of these ‘shocking’ contrarian, controversial ‘a food you thought was healthy is suddenly killing you’ stories, the theory is what we call a ‘dotted line’ theory. There is sort of a logical idea behind it, but as soon as you look at the literature, there is nothing to substantiate it. Nightshades, goitrogens, lectins, anti nutrients – we’ve been here a bunch of times before, and it’s always the same. There are studies, and they all say that there is no evidence. In fact, the studies indicate the opposite.
So in short: don’t stress about oxalate. And certainly don’t believe books that have no studies to back up their claims!
Alright, as ever, if you like what I’m teaching make sure you go and grab a copy of my book, that is PACKED with studies and scientific references, The Alkaline Life – the link is below. Hit the subscribe button to make sure you don’t miss any of my future videos. And I’ll see you on the next one.
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